Skyelander's COMPLETE Scottish History Timeline

Scottish Event & Historical Timeline

by Robert M. Gunn, Historian

Recipient of the NBCNews Editor's Choice Award for Education, 1997



Prehistory of Scotland:

________________________
7,000 b.c.
The Mesolithic Period


3,500 b.c.
The Neolithic

2,000 b.c.
The Bronze Age

600 b.c.
The Iron Age

B.C 55
Julius Caesar (102-44 BC) landed in Britain.


The First Millenium..

Year
Event

A.D. 60
Boadicea or Boudicca, Queen of the Iceni, in Britain revolts against Roman
rule killing many native British and Romans.(link to article coming soon)


A.D. 80
Julius Agricola invades "Albion" or "Caledonia" (Scotland).

c. 84 A.D.
The Celtic tribes unite under Calgacus, but he is killed (along with 10000 men)
when he meets the Roman army at the battle of Mons Graupius, the
earliest recorded battle in Scottish history. The Romans under Agricola
defeated the semi-united tribes of Caledonia.

121-129
Hadrian's Wall built from Bowness to Wallsend across the isthmus between the Tyne and Solway Firth. Intended to hold back the wild Caledonians, it
never worked.

139
Antonine's Wall built. Also known as Graham's Dyke.

209
Campaign of Severus.

297
The Pictish people were first mentioned in Roman literature. The name "Pict" is said to have come either from a latin word meaning "painted ones" or another meaning "fighter". Both of these accurately depicted the Pictish people.

360
Roman literature describes the warring tribe based in Ireland as the "Scots".

368
The Pict, Scot and Saxon tribes attack the Romans in London and plunder their treasures, called by the Romans the "Barbarian Conspiracy".
390-780
The Britons of Strathclyde rule parts of southern Scotland and the ancient kingdom of Rheged.

397
St Ninian is first recorded to bring Christianity to Scoltand, first in Galloway.

400-700?
Scotland is liberally scattered with elaborate Pictish Standing Stones whose meaning has not yet been fully deciphered.

c.410
Romans leave British Isles

450-499?
The Legendary "Arthur", King of the Britons
is claimed to have led a band of elite Celtic warriors (Britons) in a desperate struggle against the invading, pagan Saxons.

501-503
The Scots from Ireland, a Gaelic-speaking people, Christian in religion, establish their kingdom of Dalriada in Argyll on the West coast and Isles of Scotland. It's chief centre was at Dunadd.

563
Saint Columba sails from Ireland to Argyll to found monasteries, chiefly on the Island of Iona.

575
Treaty with Drumcreat.

597
Death of St. Columba.

606
Death of king Aidan of Dalriada.

600
The ancient Gododdin, of Lothian, fought the Angles at the Battle of Catterick - 300 Din Eidyn (Edinburgh) horseman killed by the Angles.

685
Battle of Nechtansmere (now called Dunnichen), where the Picts under king Brude defeat the Angles and establish Scotland's southern border. Nechtansmere, Forfarshire - On 20 May, the Angle King Ecgfrith was defeated by the Picts. Later, the Pictish King rejects the Celtic Church in favour of the Roman church.

794
Beginning of the Norse (Viking) invasion of Scotland.

802
Vikings plunder Iona.

843
Kenneth MacAlpin unites the Scots and Picts as one nation under his rule. This was the first step in creating a united Scotland, a process not completed until at least 1034 and perhaps much later.

858 - 862
Reign of Donald I

862 - 877
Reign of Constantine I

877 - 878
Reign of Aed

878 - 889
Reign of Eochaid

889 - 900
Reign of Donald II

900 - 942
Reign of Constantine II

937
Brananburgh - The Saxon King Athelstane defeated Danes and Britons near Solway.

942
Malcolm I crowned King. (r. 943-954)

954 - 962
Reign of Indulf

962 - 966
Reign of Dubh

966 - 971
Reign of Culen

c.971
Edgar gives Lothian to Kenneth II
Reign of Kenneth II 971 - 995

973
Luncarty - King Kenneth the 2nd defeated the Danish Vikings.

995 - 997
Constantine III

977
Battle of Luncarty.
Reign of Kenneth III 997 - 1005

986
Last recorded Viking raid on Iona by Norse.


Return to:
  • Scottish, Celtic History Online Home Page


    Join the Scottish, Celtic history MESSAGE BOARDS


    The Eleventh Century...

    Year
    Event

    1005
    Malcolm II (r.1005-1034) kills Kenneth III and becomes King.


    1014
    Battle of Mortlach, Banffshire - Scots, under Malcolm 2nd defeat the Vikings.

    1018
    Carham - King Malcolm the 2nd and Owen of Strathclyde defeated the
    Northumbrian army on the Tweed.

    Battle of Carham. Scots victorius and Strathclyde is annexed by the Scots.
    Malcolm II gains Lothian after defeating the Anglo-Saxon Northumbrians, with the help of the King of Strathclyde.

    Death of Owen-the-Bald, King of Strathclyde. Duncan, grandson of Malcolm II made ruler of Strathclyde.


    1034
    Duncan I (r.1034 - 1040)
    Duncan, made King of Strathclyde after the battle of Carham, helps kill his grandfather Malcolm II and becomes King of a (largely) united Scotland.

    1040
    Macbeth (r.1040 - 1057)
    MacBeth slays Duncan to becomes King of Scotland after Duncan is heavily
    defeated by the English in battle. Though vilified by Shakespeare, MacBeth was in reality a very good ruler of Scotland.

    1057 - 1058
    Brief Reign of Lulach 'the Fool'.

    1057
    Battle of Lumphanan - On 15 August MacBeth was defeated and killed by Malcolm Canmore with English help.

    Malcolm III Canmore (r.1057-93)
    , nicknamed Cean-mor or "Big Head", slays Macbeth to eventually become King.

    Norman Conquest of England begins with the Battle of Hastings.

    1069
    Marriage of Malcolm Ceanmore (Malcolm III) to Margaret. She was an Anglo-Saxon princess that sought refuge in Scotland.

    1073
    Malcolm III Pays homage to William I "the Conqueror", after defeat in battle.

    1093
    Battle of Alnwick - King Malcolm III or Canmore is killed during battle on the 13 November. Deaths of both Malcolm and Margaret. Much English influence brought to Lowland Scotland by Margaret. (later St. Margaret).

    1093 - 1094
    First Reign of Donald Ban or Bane I

    1094 - 1094
    Reign of Duncan II

    1094 - 1097
    Second Reign of Donald Ban

    1097 - 1107
    Reign of Edgar

    1098
    Magnus Barefoot claims the Western Isles.


    The Twelfth Century...
    _______________________________

    Year
    Event


    1107
    Alexander I (r.1107-24)
    On the death of Edgar, Scotland is disunited. Alexander I becomes King of Scots, but David I becomes King in Lothian and Strathclyde.


    1124
    David I (r.1124-53)
    Unity was restored when, on Alexander's death, David becomes King of Scots.
    His reign is one of the most important in Scotland's history, extending Scottish borders to the River Tees, including all of Northumberland. David I institutes many administrative changes into Scotland including laws, early schools and gives much Scottish land to his Norman friends.

    c.1134
    Province of Moray forfeited to (annexed by) the Crown.

    1138
    English victory at the Battle of the Standard at Northallerton. The 'Battle of the Standard', King David I of Scotland defeated and 10,000 Scots killed by the Anglo-Normans.

    1153
    Malcolm IV (r.1153-65) crowned.
    Rise of Somerled. The Scot-Viking Lord of the Isles and progenitor of Clan Donald and MacDougal.

    1160
    Galloway subjected to the Scottish crown.

    1164
    Death of Somerled. (First Lord of the Isles, progenitor of clans's Donald and MacDougal).

    1165-1214
    Reign of William I 'The Lion of Scotland'

    1174
    William the Lion defeated at Alnwick.
    Treaty of Falaise is signed by William the Lion after losing to the English. Under this treaty, Scotland would be in debt to England for years.

    1179
    Province of Ross subdued by William the Lion (1143-1214).

    1180
    Inverness received Charter from William the Lion.

    1189
    The Quitclaim of Canterbury.

    1192
    Scottish Church becomes a special 'daughter' of the Roman See.


    The Thirteenth Century...
    ___________________________

    Year
    Event

    1214
    Alexander II (1198-1249) raised to the throne by the Seven Earls of Scotland.


    1222
    Alexander II (1198-1249) conquers Argyll.

    1237
    Treaty of York

    1238
    Glenmasan MS. written.

    1249
    Alexander II dies at Kerrera.
    Alexander III crowned (r.1249-86)

    1263
    King Haaken of Norway and his fleet beaten by the Scots at the Battle of Largs.
    Scots win decisive victory and obtain the Hebrides from Norway.

    1266
    Treaty of Perth.
    The Western Isles (Hebrides) officially annexed by the crown from Norway.

    1272
    William Wallace born circa 1270. His birthplace remains a mystery, however some claim it is Elderslie, and often promoted as such).

    1274
    Robert the Bruce born.


    1286
    Death of Alexander III by a fall from his horse over a cliff. Scottish Throne open to
    only one child heir.

    1290
    Treaty of Birgham: arranges for marriage of Edward I of England's son to the "Maid of Norway". Margaret the "Maid of Norway", Alexander's only heir dies en route to Scotland. Scottish crown is opened to over a dozen claimants.

    1292
    John Balliol (r.1292-96)
    Edward I of England selects John Balliol as King of Scotland.

    1295
    Balliol renews ties with France, leading to the "Auld Alliance" between Scotland
    and France - one of the world's oldest mutual defence treaties.

    1296
    Annexation of Scotland by England. Edward I invades Scotland. Scotland's Coronation Stone - the "Stone of Destiny" - is stolen by Edward I and taken to Westminster Abbey (in London) by the English. Scots are killed in thousands by Edwards 30,000 troops and 5,000 cavalry in Berwick and Dunbar.

    1297
    The Emergence of William Wallace - Scottish War of Independence begins.

    William Wallace kills sheriff of Lanark, Hazelrig, and a revolt under his command is begun. In September, Wallace defeats the English forces atStirling Bridge and becomes the "Gaurdian of Scotland".

    1298
    Battle of Falkirk(I),
    William Wallace and his army of 12,000 are defeated by Edward I of England and his army of 2,500 Heavy horse and about 20,000 foot. Wallace resigns Gaurdianship, but Scotland now has a sense of self-identity apart and distinct from that of England.

    Return to:

  • Scottish, Celtic History Online Home Page

    Want to discuss this? Join the Scottish history discussion MESSAGE BOARDS, free.


    Fourteenth Century...
    _____________________________

    Year
    Event

    1305
    Edward I's Ordinance for the government of Scotland.


    1305
    William Wallace, Scottish Patriot, betrayed and captured
    by the English is "hung, drawn and quartered in a barbarous execution. Wallace's head is mounted on London Bridge, his body cut into four parts and sent to cities in southern Scotland.

    1306
    Robert Bruce murders the John "Red" Comyn in Greyfriar Abbey, Dumfries. Coronation of Robert the Bruce at Scone. Reign of Robert I (r.1306-29)

    1307
    Three of the Bruce's brothers, Alexander, Nigel and Thomas are "hanged, drawn and quartered" by Edward I, exactly as Wallace had been executed two years earlier.

    1307
    10 May, Bruce and Douglas defeat de Valence, the Earl of Pembroke, at Louden Hill, his first major victory over the English.

    1308
    Battle of the pass of Brander.

    1308
    Inverurie - King Robert the Bruce defeated Comyn of Buchan and the English.

    1314
    Battle of Bannockburn (Scots under Robert the Bruce routed the English led by Edward II) resulting in Scottish Independence. The Scots with only 500 mounted men, 2,500 spearmen and 5,000 warriors defeat the English and their army of 25-30,000. It was Englands most severe loss to any army in their medieval history.

    1320
    The Declaration of Arbroath is drawn up to recognise Scottish independence from England. The Pope finally accepts the Declaration.

    1325
    Tarbert Castle (Loch Fyne) built.

    1326
    First Scottish Parliament met.

    1328
    Treaty of Northhampton signed between Edward III and Robert I officially recognising Scottish independence and Robert Bruce as it's king.

    1329
    King Robert the Bruce (Robert I) dies, possibly of leprosy. Accession of David II. (r.1329-71)

    1332
    Second Scottish War of Independence begins.

    1332 Dupplin Moor - Edward Balliol, son of John Balliol, invades Scotland with English backing. Scots defeated by Edward Balliol.

    1333
    Battle of Halidon Hill. Edward the III of England defeats Scots.

    1346
    Battle of Neville's Cross. King David II is defeated and captured
    by the English.

    1349-50
    The Black Death, (Bubonic Plague) begins in Scotland.

    1371
    Accession of Robert II, the first of the Stewart Kings to the throne. Robert II (the Stewart) reigns (1371-90).

    1388
    Battle of Otterburn. Henry Percy "Hotspur" and the English defeated by the
    Scots under James, 2nd earl of Douglas. Henry and Ralph Percy captured.
    Douglas was killed at the battle.

    1390-1406
    Reign of Robert III.

    1396 Huge clan battle at Perth , watched by king Robert III as "entertainment".

    Return to:
  • Scottish, Celtic History Online Home Page

    Join the Scottish History MESSAGE BOARDS, free!



    Fifteenth Century...

    _______________________________

    Year
    Event

    1402
    Homildon Hill, Northumberland, English defeat Scots.


    1406 James I (1394-1437) captured by the English.

    1411
    Battle of Harlaw. Donald Lord of the Isles was defeated by an army of
    Lowlanders.

    1412
    St. Andrews University founded by Bishop Wardlaw.

    1415
    Battle of Agincourt (Major English victory over the French).

    1422
    Battle of Bauge'.

    1424
    James I allowed to return to Scotland from captivity in England.

    1427
    Parliament at Inverness when James I ordered the imprisonment of fifty Highland
    Chiefs.

    1429
    Inverness attacked and burned by Alexander, Lord of the Isles. Battle of Druimnacoub.
    1437
    Assassination of James I at Perth.

    1437-60
    James II accession to the throne.

    1440
    Kilchurn Castle built.

    1451
    University of Glasgow founded mainly by the exertions of Bishop Turnbull.

    1452
    Earl of Douglas killed.

    1455
    Downfall of the Black Douglases.

    1460
    King James II was killed by an exploding canon during the siege of Roxburgh.
    James III (r.1460-88) takes the throne.
    William Dunbar (1460-1530), poet and priest.

    1466
    Clan battle of Blair-na-Pairc.

    1468
    James III marries Margaret of Denmark.

    1468-69
    Pledging of the Northern Isles. Orkney and Shetland Islands aquired by Scotland
    from Norway.

    1472
    St. Andrews Aee is raised to Archiepiscopal Status.

    1480
    Sheriffdom of Tarbert established. Battle of Bloody Bay, near Tobermory.

    1488
    Battle of Sauchieburn.

    1488
    Assasination of James III by rebels. King James III was murdered after being accused of surrounding himself with evil advisors who encouraged him to bring Englishmen into Scottish affairs.

    1488
    James IV (r.1488-1513) becomes King of Scotland.

    1493
    Angus Og and the Forfeiture of the Lordship of the Isles. End of the Lordship and much of the independence of the Isles. The balance of clan power begins to shift to the Campbells, who support the Scottish Crown against the MacDonalds.
    James IV visited Dunstaffnage and Mingarry Castles.

    1494
    King's College, University of Aberdeen founded by Bishop Elphinstone.

    1495
    James IV visited the Western Highlands.

    1496
    Education Act passed.

    1498-1499
    James IV visited the Western Highlands for the second time.


    The Sixteenth Century...

    _______________________________

    Year
    Event

    1502
    King Henry VII of England gives his daughter in marriage to James IV of Scotland.
    This gave rise to the Union of the Crowns in 1603.


    1503
    James IV marries Margaret Tudor, daughter of Henry VII.

    1503
    Insurrection of Donald Dubh.

    1506
    George Buchanan (1506-1582), historian, humanist and reformer.

    1507
    Printing introduced to Scotland by Miller.

    1512
    Compilation of the Book of Lismore begun.
    1512
    Under the terms of a treaty with France (the "Auld Alliance") all Scottish
    citizens became French and vice versa.

    1513
    Battle of Flodden. James IV killed in battle along with much of the aristocracy of Scotland and thousand of Highlanders and Lowlanders by English forces of Henry VIII, led by the Earl of Surrey. Battle was fought at Branxton. James IV's body was disembowelled, embalmed and sent, eventually, to London. His body, grotesquely preserved, was kept in the Monastery of Sheen, then thrown in the lumber room after the dissolution. Years later, it was discovered by workmen who cut off the head and used it for a macabre plaything - it was passed from one English noble to another for years, until it was finally buried in an anonymous grave.

    1513
    James V prepares for throne, but Scotland is ruled by a regent until the boy is
    older. (r.1513-42)

    1517
    Treaty of Rouen.

    1528
    James V's Personal Reign Begins.

    1529
    John Armstrong and his followers hanged by the order of James V.

    1532-34
    Expedition of James V to the Highlands.

    1540
    James V (1512-42) toured the Western Isles.

    1542
    At the Battle of Solway Moss, the Scots are routed. Death of James V.
    Birth of Mary, Queen of Scots, at Linlithgow.

    1544
    English Expedition to the Western Isles.
    Battle of Blar-na-leine.

    1544
    The "Rough Wooing" - England, pushing her territorial ambitions through a
    proposed marriage and alliance, was sharply rebuffed, and thus resorted to
    that more agressive policy known as the "rough wooing" and aggression
    towards Scotland. The Scot/English Border wars and conflicts, already
    present, reached their height during this time as bloody Border conflists and
    reiving abounded.

    1546
    Murder of Cardinal Beaton.

    1547
    Battle of Pinkie. 15,000 English under the Duke of Somerset defeated by the
    Scots.

    1550
    Death of MacKinnon, the last abbot of Iona.

    1557
    The first Covenant. (Secret Scottish Protestant group).

    1558
    Mary marries Francis II (Dauphin) of France.

    1559
    John Knox's sermon at Perth - regarded as the start of the Reformation in
    Scotland.

    1560
    Treaty of Edinburgh.

    1561
    Queen Mary
    returns to Scotland from France. (r. 1542-1567)

    1562
    Queen Mary visits Inverness; castle besieged by rebels.

    1563
    Mary's WitchCraft Acts passed in Scotland condeming "witches" to burning
    as heretics.

    1565
    Mary marries Henry Darnley.

    1567
    Darnley Murdered. Abdication of Mary, Queen of Scots.
    James VI (r.1567-1625) becomes King of Scotland.

    1567
    Knox's Liturgy translated into Gaelic by Bishop Carswell.

    1568
    Battle of Langside. Moray and 45,000 men defeated Mary with only 4,500. Mary flees to England to seek help from Elizabeth I, who imprisons Mary in various Keeps, Castles and Towers.

    1569
    Mary MacLeod (Mairi Nighean Alasdair Ruaids, 1569-1674) Gaelic poetess,
    born.

    1570
    The murder of Regent Moray by nobles.

    1571
    Regent Lennox slain.

    1572
    Death of John Knox.
    Death of Regent Mar.

    1573
    The final defeat of the Queen's (Mary's) party.

    1579
    Bible printed in Scotland for the first time.

    1581
    Regent Morton Falls.

    1582
    Raid of Ruthven.

    1582
    University of Edinburgh founded.

    1587
    Mary, Queen of Scots executed at Fotheringhay.

    1587
    Act passsed for quieting the clans of the Borders, Highlands, and Isles.

    1588-89
    Surviving ship from the Spanish Armada sunk at Tobermory.

    1594
    Battle of Glenlivet.

    Massacre of the MacDonalds by the MacLeods in a cave on the
    Island of Eigg.


    1597
    * - The future James VI of Scotland writes the definitve works on witchcraft and demons called "Demonologie" which results in hysteria about alleged "witches" and many witch burnings.
    Also -
    Highlanders give assistance to Queen Elizabeth I of England.
    Burghs of Cambeltown, of Fort-William and of Stornoway officially constituted.

    1598
    Highland Landowners ordered to "prove" their right to possess titles.

    Isle of Lewis granted to Lowlander "Adventurers", the Crown. Results in much feuding and problems.


    Return to:

  • Skye's Scottish History Home Page


    Join the Scottish-Celtic HISTORY MESSAGE BOARD




    The Seventeenth Century...

    ___________________________________

    Year
    Event

    1600
    The Gowrie conspiracy.


    1601
    Lowland "Adventurers" in Isle of Lewis are soundly defeated.

    1602
    Battle of Glenfruin.

    1603 Union of the Crowns
    James VI of Scotland becomes James I of England, bringing about the Union of the Crowns. This was not an altogether welcome move in much of Scotland or England.

    1605
    Renewed attempt to colonise the Isle of Lewis by Lowland "Adventurers".

    1607
    MacKenzie of Kintail aquires Lewis from the MacLeods of Lewis by no MacLeod heir and by marriage to a MacLeod of Lewis. Macleods of Lewis are displaced
    to the mainland.

    1609
    "Statutes of Iona".

    1614
    Islay granted to Campbell of Cawdor by Crown.

    1617
    James VI (on his only return to Scotland) tactlessly lectures his countrymen on the "superiority of English civilisation".

    1618
    The "Five articles of Perth".
    James VI imposes Bishops on the presbyterian Church of Scotland in an attempt to integrate it with the Church of England. This move was deeply unpopular with the Scots.

    1625
    Death of James VI and I of Britain. (James VI of Scotland).

    Charles I becomes King on the death of his father. Although born in Scotland, Charles had no interest in the country and dealt with Scottish affairs with even less tact than his father, causing discontent.


    1625-49
    Reign of Charles I.
    Charles I's Act of Revocation.

    1633
    Charles I (1600-49) visits Scotland.

    1637
    The Scottish prayer book written.
    Charles attempts to further anglicise the Church of Scotland by introducing a new prayer book, which causes riots at St.Giles in Edinburgh. Jenny Geddes throws a cutty-stool in St. Giles in protest.

    1638
    The National Covenant. A Protestant (mostly Lowland, later called Presbyterian) movement forms. The National Covenant. - Charles regards protests against the prayer book as treason, forcing Scots to choose between their church and the King. A "Covenant", swearing to resist these changes to the death, is signed in Greyfriars Church in Edinburgh. The covenant is accepted by thousands of Scots.

    1639
    The First Bishops' War.
    Charles calls a General Assembly, effectively abolishing the unpopular Scottish
    Bishops. Agreement is reached through the "Treaty of Berwick".

    1640
    The Second Bishops' War.
    Charles's peace collapses; the Scots Covenanting Army led by David Leslie
    shows force by marching on Newcastle.

    1640
    Burning of the "Bonnie Hoose o' Airlie" by Campbell of Inverawe and followers.

    1641
    Having no realistic chance of opposing the Scots, Charles negotiates a truce at Ripon.

    1642
    Civil war breaks out in England. The Scottish Covenanters side with the English rebels who take power. The Earl of Montrose sides with King Charles so civil strife also spilled into Scotland. It was as much of a religious war as a civil war.

    1643
    The Solemn League and Covenant signed.

    1644
    Scottish invasion of England. Battle of Tippermuir.

    1644-45
    Campaign of Marquis of Montrose.

    1645
    Battle of Inverlochy. Montrose ravages Argyll. Town of Dundee sacked by
    Montrose's army.

    1645
    Battle of Philiphaugh: Montrose defeated.
    Battle of Auldearn.

    1646
    Charles I surrenders.

    1646
    Massacre of Lamonts at Dunoon by Campbells.

    1647
    The "Engagement". Meeting of Charles I, while being held on the Isle of Wight, met with 3 Scots commisioners, and with them came to a compromise, "the "Engagement", whereby Charles agreed to push Scottish Presbyterianism down English throats in return for Lowland Scottish support and arms.

    1647
    Garrison of Dunaverty massacred by General Leslie's parliamentary forces.

    1648
    The Whiggamore Raid.

    1649
    Execution of Charles I
    Charles II proclaimed king. (reigned 1649-85).

    1650
    Execution of Montrose.

    1650
    Battle of Dunbar, and Invercarron.

    1651
    Battle of Inverkeithing and Worcester. Scotland now under the command of the Commonwealth.

    The rule of Cromwell (1651-58).
    1651
    Charles II crowned at Scone. The last coronation in Scotland.


    1653
    Scotland taken under the Protectorate. (Cromwell).

    1660
    Restoration of the Monarchy. Charles II restored to the throne.

    1661
    Execution of the Marquis of Argyll.

    1666
    Pentland Rising occurred in the North.

    1678
    Invasion of the South-West of Scotland by the "Highland Host".

    1679
    Battle of Drumclog.
    Battle of Bothwell Brig (bridge) fought.

    1682
    Founding of the Advocates' Library, later to become the National Library of Scotland. Now one of the UK's four copyright deposit libraries.

    1685
    Death of Charles II.
    Earl of Argyll's invasion of Scotland. Also, execution of the Earl of Argyll at Edinburgh.

    1685-88
    James VII (II in England).

    1688-93
    Fernaig manuscript compiled.

    1689
    James VII and II deposed.

    1689-94 (reign of William III amd Mary II)
    1689
    William III (William of Orange) and Mary (Stewart or Stuart) II.

    "Bonnie Dundee's Revolt, The Revolution - First Jacobite revolt or "Dundee's Revolt".
    Battle of Killiecrankie - Highlanders under leadership of "Bonnie Dundee" (John Graham of Claverhouse, Viscount Dundee), defeats the Williamite (Government) forces of General Hugh MacKay. Dundee is killed in battle.


    1689
    Battle of Dunkeld.

    1690
    Establishment of Presbyterianism.

    1692 The Massacre of Glencoe. factions sent by gove't, led by Campbells, siding with King William of Orange, coldly murders members of Clan (McIan) MacDonald. (The MacIan's were loyal to clan Donald). This act of savagery begins years of feuding in Scotland.

    Massacre of the MacIans of Clan MacDonald by government forces led by Clan Campbell at Glen Coe (Glencoe). Thirty-eight MacDonald's are killed ruthlessly by surprise attack in the middle of the night by the Robert Campbell of Glen Lyon. The Campbell was following orders from "Master of the Stair", Dalyrmple, who took his orders directly from the British king William. The King of Protestant championship falls out of favour with most Highlanders.


    1694-1702
    Reign of William III (IV)

    1695
    Bank of Scotland founded.

    1696
    Act for settling schools passed, called Education Act.

    1698
    The Darien Expedition.
    To compete with the English East India Trading Company, the Scots formed a similar organisation, Company of Scotland Trading to Africa and the Indies. Known in London as the Scottish East India Company, investors championed the proposal. It settled in Panama with some poor planning, and when native Indians, Spaniards and disease nearly wiped them out, they called on the English fleet to resue them (they were after all supposed to be a Union), but received no help from the English and only 75 Scots returned alive.


    The Eighteenth Century...


    Year
    Event

    1701
    Alexander MacDonald (Alastair Macmhaighster Alastair, 1701-1780) Gaelic
    poet, born.


    1702
    Death of William III (of England) and II (of Scotland), William of Orange.

    1707
    Treaty of Union of Parliaments is passed; Scotland formally united with England to form Great Britain. Although claimed to have been a peaceful and desired Union, it was met with riots in Edinburgh, and the Highlanders never wanted Union with England. It was, in effect, "steamrollered" onto the Scots by Queen Anne, and Scotland's larger neighbour to the south.

    1714
    Death of Queen Anne.
    Rob MacKay (d. 1778) Gaelic poet, born.

    1715
    First Jacobite "Rising" (Mar's Rebellion). The Jacobites fighting for the James Stuart (James VIII), "Old Pretender" as he was known by his detractors, were defeated at the Battle of Sheriffmuir.

    1716
    Dugald Buchanan (1716-68) Gaelic poet, born.

    1719
    Jacobites revolt again (Hispano-Scottish Rising) resulting in the defeat at the
    Battle of Glenshiel.

    1724
    Duncan Ban MacIntyre (1724-1812), Gaelic poet born.

    1725
    General Wade appointed Commander-in-Chief on the Highlands of Scotland.

    1725
    Major road construction begins in the Highlands to make them more
    accessible to British armies.

    1727
    Death of George I

    1729
    Independent Cos. begun

    1736
    James MacPherson, of Ossianic fame (1736-98) born at Ruthven. His work on Highland clans and histories later turns out to have been bogus fiction.

    1739
    Black Watch raised. The regiment was formed as much (if not completely), to keep a gov't eye on the Scottish Highlands, not to help the Highlanders. They went to great fame later in foreign wars.

    1743
    The potato introduced into the Scottish Highlands
    1744
    The world's first Golf Club (the Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers) was founded.

    1745
    Prince Charles Edward Stuart (Bonnie Prince Charlie) raises the Stewart and Royal Scottish Banner at Glenshiel.

    1745
    Second Jacobite rebellion (the Forty-Five) begins; Scottish victory at the Battle of Prestonpans; Jacobite Scottish army advance as far south as Derby but then retreat.

    1746
    Battle of Falkirk(II) victory for Scottish Jacobites.

    1746
    16 April, 1746, Battle of Culloden (Jacobite Scots routed by the Government troops); Charles escapes to France. The Jacobites had been victorious in the prior battles and skirmishes; so much so, that King George of Britain had fled south from his palace in London to escape possible capture! But the battle itself was a total disaster for the Scots, under poor leadership. The Scots were not in a good postion from the start of the battle, and instead of withdrawing as he was advised by Lord Murray, Charles listened to his Irish supporters who convinced him to fight a "final" battle here at Culloden Moor. The Scots were cut down before most of them crossed the moor, those that did were exhausted and using swords against English firearms and bayonets. The injured Scots on the battlefield were ordered to be butchered by British commander, the Duke of Cumberland (Butcher Cumberland) where they lay and were unceremoniouslly dumped into mass graves, some still alive, and buried. This final and decisive battle effectively ended all Jacobite resistance and the Highlands were reduced to ashes by the Government forces on a savage killing spree. The Highland Clan system never recovered it's past glory, and the Clearances of "wild Hielanders" was about to put and end to 2000 or more years of Clan and family systems. The Highlanders suffered much more than their Lowland counterparts, many of whom had fought on the government side, as indeed did some Highlanders. The Highlander was reviled by the Lowlander, and thought a savage by the unsympathetic English. It was the end of the Highland way of life forever.
    Read the entire story.
    1746
    The wearing of the kilt is prohibited from August 1st.

    Highland Dress was proscribed (prohibited) by parliament; the wearing of the kilt was prohibited and punishable by death. So, too, was the use of Tartan, gathering of any clans - all Highland culture was effectively wiped out of existence. Beginning of the Highland 'Pacification'.


    1759
    Scotland's most famous poet, Robert Burns (1759-96) was born at Alloway.

    1760
    Death of George II.

    1767
    The first New Testament was printed in Gaelic.

    1768
    The first edition of the "Encylopaedia Britannica" was published in Edinburgh
    by William Smellie.

    1770
    James Hogg, poet, born in Edinburgh (1771-1832).

    1770
    The Clyde Trust was created to convert the River Clyde, which was at that time an insignficant river, into a major thoroughfare for maritime communications. This required a major programme of excavation and dredging.

    1771
    Sir Walter Scott born in Edinburgh (1771-1832). Buried at Dryburgh Abbey.

    1775
    Ewan MacLachlan, Gaelic poet, born.
    Penal Statutes against Clan Gregor repealed.

    1775
    Glenturret Distillery, Crieff, the oldest in Scotland, established.

    1776
    Adam Smith publishes The Wealth Of Nations. James Watt builds his steam
    engine with separate condenser.

    1776
    American colonists declare independence from British rule.

    1777
    Highland Light Infantry raised.

    1778
    Seaforth Highlanders raised.

    1779
    John Galt, Scottish author, born in Ayrshire (1779-1839).

    1780-1854 HIGHLAND CLEARANCES,
    1785 Official 'beginning' of the HIGHLAND CLEARANCES, which lasted umtil 1854 and beyond. This was the initial wave.

    1780
    Thomas Chalmers, Scottish divine and humanist, born in Anstruther (Fife)
    1780-1847.

    1782
    Act proscribing Highland dress repealed.

    1783
    Glasgow Chamber of Commerce founded - the first in Britain.

    1783-1801
    Bible (new) first published in Gaelic.

    1788
    Prince Charles Edward Stuart (Bonnie Prince Charlie) died. (1720-88)

    1792
    Hew Ainslie, poet, born in Ayrshire (1792-1878).

    1793
    Cameron Highlanders raised.

    1794
    Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders raised. Gordon Highlanders also raised.

    1797
    Mrs Janet Keiller's marmalade made by the factory in Dundee.



    The Nineteenth Century...

    Year
    Event

    1802
    Hugh Miller, geologist and author, born in Cromarty (1802-56).


    1804
    Dr. John MacLachlan, of Rahoy (1804-1870), Gaelic poet born.

    1807
    Tenants removed to make way for sheep-farming in the "Sutherland Clearances". By this government policy, what little remained of Highlanders and Highland lifestyle was "cleared" out of 90% of the Highlands. The people were crammed onto ramshackle hellships with no hope, education or money, and sent to America, Australia New Zealand and Canada. There, many Scots whoonly spoke Gaelic, had to rebuild their entire lives separated by the Atlantic ocean from their wives, children and family.

    1808
    Evan MacColl (1808-98) Gaelic poet, born.

    1808
    William Livingstone (1808-70), Gaelic poet born.

    1809
    Battle of Corunna.

    1812-1872
    Norman MacLeod, chaplain Queen Victoria, had much influence on her and
    her fascination with Highland Garb and life.

    1813
    David Livingstone born in Blan tyre (11813-73).

    1815
    The Battle of Waterloo, and the defeat of Napoleon.

    1818
    Dugald MacPhail, Gaelic poet, born.

    1822
    Visit of King George IV to Scotland.

    1824
    George MacDonald, clergyman, novelist and poet, born (1824-1905).

    1834
    Mrs. Mary Mackellar (1834-90), Gaelic poetess, born.

    1835
    Continuous electric light invented by James Bowman Lindsay.

    1842
    Queen Victoria's first visit to Scotland.

    1843
    Neil MacLeod, Gaelic poet, born.

    1845
    Pneumatic tyre invented by Robert Thomson.

    1846
    Anesthesia developed by James Young Simpson.

    1850
    R.L. Stevenson born in Edinburgh. (1850-94). Scotland's most famous novelist

    1854
    Official 'ending' of the Highland Clearances.

    1859
    The National Gallery of Scotland opens.

    Scotland hosts the first Open Golf Championship.

    1861
    First colour photograph taken under the supervision of James Clerk Maxwell.

    1864
    Neil Munro, author and poet, born (1864-1930).

    1871
    The first Rugby International is played between Scotland and England.

    1873
    The Scottish Football Association and Rangers Football Club are founded.

    1874
    Queen's Park wins the first Scottish Cup, beating Clydesdale 2-0.

    1876
    Telephone capable of sustained articulate speech invented by Alexander
    Graham Bell in the USA.

    1879
    Tay Bridge Disaster. Part of the structure collapses under a passing train during
    a severe storm.

    1883
    The Boys' Brigade formed in Glasgow by William Smith.

    1886
    Crofter's Act passed.

    1888
    Celtic Football Club is founded.

    1890
    Opening of the Forth Rail Bridge, an internationally recognised Scottish
    landmark.

    1892
    Thermos flask invented by Sir James Dewar.


    The Twentieth Century....

    Year
    Event

    1902
    The stand at Ibrox Park stadium collapses during an England v Scotland match, killing 20 and injuring more than 200.


    1912
    The Scottish Land Court entered on its duties.

    1914-1918
    The First World War: Earl Haig, Commander-in-Chief.

    1919
    German battle fleet scuttled at Scapa Flow.

    1921
    Scottish Railways absorbed onto L.N.E.R. and L.M.S. lines.

    1924
    Britain's first Labour Prime Minister is Ramsay MacDonald, an illegitimate
    child born in his grandmother's 'but and ben' in Lossiemouth.

    1926
    John Logie Baird transmits his first crude television picture from one room to
    another.

    1928
    Sir Alexander Fleming discovers penicillin.
    And, Grampian Hydro-Electric Power Scheme initiated.

    1929
    69 children die when fire sweeps through the Glen Cinema, Paisley.

    1929
    Union of Church of Scotland and United Free Church.

    1930
    St. Kilda evacuated. With the population dwindling and communication with the mainland limited, the authorities decide life is intolerable on the island.

    1934
    Cunard White Star liner "Queen Mary" launched at Clydebank.

    1935
    Radar invented by Sir Robert Watson-Watt.

    1939-1945
    [The Second World War]
    1939
    German U-boat enters Scapa Flow and sinks battleship Royal Oak. First air raid of the war is launched by German planes on British warships in the Firth of Forth. Three ships are slightly damaged.

    1941
    The SS Politician is wrecked in the Sound of Eriskay with a cargo containing 24,000 cases of whisky. Provides the idea for Compton Mackenzie's famous Whisky Galore.

    1947
    Edinburgh Festival of Music and Drama inaugurated.

    1950
    Scottish Nationalists steal the Stone of Destiny from Westminster Abbey. This was Scotland's Coronation stone,taken by the English in 1296. By tradition all British monarchs have to be crowned while sitting on it. It was recovered from Arbroath Abbey, although some claim this was a copy, and the original remains in Scotland.

    1962
    Sean Connery's first Bond film, Dr No, released. Scotland wins its first Oscar for
    a Clydeside shipbuilding documentary, Seawards the Great Ships.

    1964
    Forth Road Bridge opened by the Queen. At 1006m it is the longest suspension
    bridge in Scotland and eighth longest in the world.

    1966
    Tay Road Bridge opened by the Queen Mother. At the time it was the longest
    river crossing of any road bridge in Britain.

    1967
    Celtic becomes the first British Club to win the European Cup, beating Inter Milan 2-1. The Queen Elizabeth II (QE2),the largest liner under the British flag, is launched at Clydebank.

    1968
    Jim Clark, twice world champion Formula One Driver, killed in a race in West
    Germany.

    1971
    66 people are killed in Scotland's worst football disaster when a barrier collapses at the end of the Rangers v Celtic football match at Ibrox park.

    1975
    The first oil is piped ashore from the North Sea.

    1982
    First Papal visit to Scotland. Pope John Paul II visits Edinburgh and Glasgow.

    1988
    Piper Alpha oil production platform in the North Sea explodes, killing 187 men. 1988
    A Pan Am747 airliner crashes on Lockerbie, Dumfriesshire, killing all 259 passengers and crew, and 11 people on the ground.
    Sandy Lyle becomes the first British Golfer to win the US Masters.

    1990
    Allister Hutton becomes the first Scot to win the London Marathon.
    Glasgow's year as European City of Culture.

    1992
    British Steel closes the Ravenscraig steelworks. US Navy leaves the Holy
    Loch submarine base.

    1993
    The oil tanker Braer, carrying 84,000 tonnes of crude oil, runs aground in
    Quendale Bay, Shetland. Much of the oil leaks into the sea, the remainder
    escaping when the ship's hull finally breaks up.

    1995
    The road toll bridge linking the island of Skye to the mainland for the first time
    is opened. Colin McRae becomes the first British World Rally Champion.

    1995
    Scotland's film and tourist industries receive a boost when Braveheart, Mel Gibson's film about William Wallace, wins five Oscars and makes the world aware, again, of Scotland's history.

    1996
    A gunman kills 16 five-year-old children, their teacher and himself in the Primary
    School at Dunblane in Perthshire. This is the worst tragedy of its type in the U.K.

    1996
    The Stone of Destiny/Scone
    is finally returned to Scotland, 700 years after it was stolen by Edward I.

    31 August, 1997
    Diana, Princess of Wales is killed in a tragic automobile accident in Paris after attempting to flee "tabloid photographers". She was 36 years old and leaves behind two sons, Princes' William and Harry. The world mourns her loss for one entire week.

    September 1997
    Scottish people voted YES for "Devolution" for Scotland, by a 75% majority. This will give Scotland it's own parliament, not tied to English parliamentary systems, for the first time in several centuries.
    1997
    A seven-hundred year celebration for William Wallace's victory at Stirling Bridge is attended by thousands of people both from Scotland and outside of it. This is no small due to the movie Braveheart which came out 2 years earlier.

    1999
    For the first time in almost 300 years the Scots Parliament is restored.



    Don't see a Scottish historical date that you think should be included here? Contact me and I'll review it.


    * ©Copyright 1995/2009, *RMG
    Medieval Historian:
    *Robert M. Gunn, MA
    All Rights Reserved


    No portion may be reproduced by any means, without prior written consent of the author.


    ©Skye-Net, R. Gunn, 1995/2009

    | Home | History Messageboard | Scottish Timeline | Scottish Battles | Awards | About |


    index sitemap advanced
    site search by freefind



    All Web pages entirely hand-coded from HTML & JAVAscripting